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パワーハラスメントへの対応(労働者側)

パワーハラスメントへの対応(労働者側)

■パワーハラスメントの定義

労働施策総合推進法第30条の2にいう、「職場において行われる優越的な関係を背景とした言動であつて、業務上必要かつ相当な範囲を超えたものによりその雇用する労働者の就業環境が害される」との要件を満たすものがパワーハラスメントに該当します。

この要件は、「①優越的な関係を背景とした言動」、「②業務上必要かつ相当な範囲を超えたもの」、及び、「③労働者の就業環境が害される」ものであることという3つの内容が含まれています。

■パワーハラスメントへの対抗手段

パワーハラスメントを受けた労働者が取りうる手段の例としては、以下のものが挙げられます。

1 上司や人事・労務の担当者に相談する

  • 加害者に対する厳重注意
  • 加害者に対する減給や降格、出勤停止などの懲戒処分
  • 加害者または自分の配置転換

などの措置がとられることを目指します。

もっとも、これらの手段は、会社のハラスメント相談窓口などの体制がしっかり機能していなければ、無意味であり、最悪の場合、ハラスメントがより悪化する可能性もございます。

2 労働局「総合労働相談コーナー」に相談する

労働局が会社に対して助言・指導をするように労働局に相談・要請します。

労働局からの指導等により、事態が収拾することもございます。しかし、労働局からの指導では、加害者自身が問題を認識せず、ハラスメントがより悪化する可能性もございます。

また、労働局からの指導が功を奏さなかった場合、労働局の担当者が、労働者の方に代わって交渉や労働訴訟を行うことはできません。

3 加害者(および/または会社)に損害賠償を求める

ハラスメント加害者本人のハラスメント行為には、不法行為が成立します。したがって、ハラスメント加害者本人に対して、不法行為に基づく損害賠償請求をすることとなります。

また、会社は、労働者に対して、安全配慮義務を有しています。ハラスメントをきちんと防止できなかったことについて、安全配慮義務違反が認められます、したがって、会社に対して、安全配慮義務違反を理由とする損害賠償請求または使用者責任に基づく損害賠償請求をすることとなります。

ハラスメント加害者本人だけ、または、ハラスメントを放置した会社だけを訴えたいということも可能です。

4 加害者に刑事罰を求める

ハラスメント加害者のハラスメント行為が、嫌がらせのレベルを超えて、脅迫罪、強要罪、暴行罪、傷害罪といった犯罪行為に該当する悪質性が極めて高い場合、ハラスメント加害者を刑事告訴することも検討すべき場合がございます。

上記1や2のような手前の段階での方法で解決できれば、それに越したことはありません。しかし、残念ながら、上記1の2のような手段で解決できることばかりではなく、かえってハラスメント加害者が開き直り、事態がするような場合も少なくありません。

ハラスメントを止めさせること、これまで受けてきたハラスメントに対する民事上・刑事上の責任追及のためには、上記3及び4の手段が考えられます。

ハラスメントの訴訟では、密室で行われていることや事実関係を正しく裁判所に理解させる点で、主張面、立証面ともに大変難しいケースが多いです。

しかし、「泣き寝入り」をすることは、ご自身のためにも、会社のためにも、国全体のためにもプラスはありません。

お早めに専門家である弁護士にご相談ください。

 

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